The Beckhard‐Harris change model describes the conditions necessary for change to occur.

The model specifies that organizations and individuals change when:
  • There is DISSATISFACTION (D) with the current state (of whatever the focus of change might be);
  • There is a clear and shared VISION (V) of a preferred future;
  • There is an acceptable FIRST STEPS (F) roadmap to achieving the Vision;
  • The product of D x V x F is greater than the existing RESISTANCE to change among those whose support is required for successful implementation.

These conditions give rise to a change formula:


This change formula also implies that all three elements on the left side, Desire, Vision, and First Steps must be present for change to occur. If any element is missing, the product of multiplication is zero, which will always be less than the Resistance to change, which is always present to some degree.


Beckhard, R. (1969). Organization development: Strategies and models.