Herzberg two-factor Theory

Herzberg was the first to show that satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work nearly always arose from different factors.


He showed that certain factors truly motivate 'motivators', whereas others tended to lead to dissatisfaction 'hygiene factors’. “There was an urgent need at the time Herzberg’s Two-Factor for more and better insight about the attitudes of people towards their jobs due to the prevalence of job dissatisfaction indicators such as strikes, slowdowns, and filing of grievances (Herzberg, 1957)

Examples of hygiene needs in the workplace are: policy, relationship with supervisor, work conditions, salary, company car, status, security, relationship with subordinates and personal life.

True motivators were found to be other completely different factors, notably in Herzberg's research factors such as: achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and personal growth.

Herzberg’s theory has been attached by some writers; there are two general criticism of Herzberg’s theory, first one that the theory has only limited application to manual worker and the second that the theory is methodologically bound.