Organizational Design

Organisation design is the mapping out of an organisation structure and how it is aligned with all other aspects i.e. functions, processes and strategies within the business. (Connor et al. 2012).

In Change management an organization should be able to experiment and adapt to changing internal and external circumstances or contingencies. It should be able to combine people, technology and structure to match opportunities and demand - economic, political, social and technological that is presented by the environment (Knight and Willmott, 2012).
One of the tools that can be used to assess an organisation design in Change management is the Force field Analysis originally adopted in 1951.

Force Field Analysis (1951)

This model is relatively simple to understand and easy to visualize.

  • The model identifies both driving forces and restraining forces within an organization.
  • These driving forces, such as environmental factors, push for change within the organization, while the restraining forces, such as organizational factors (e.g., limited resources or poor morale), act as barriers to change
  • The model relies upon the change process, with the social implications built into the model (e.g., disequilibrium is expected to occur until equilibrium is re-established).
  • The general goal of this model is to intentionally move to a desirable state of equilibrium by adding driving forces, where important, and eliminating restraining forces, where appropriate.
Force Field Analysis.jpg

Most activities in work organizations are divided and coordinated by more formal mechanisms, such as legal contracts of employment, and a written job descriptions. Using the Force field analysis it might happen that there is need for:
1. De-layering- which is Reducing the number of levels in the hierarchy so as to have fewer managers.
2. Rationalizing – which is a measure intended to increase the efficiency and/or improve the effectiveness of work practices.
The analysis might also lead to an organisation reconfiguring the vertical and/or horizontal divisions perhaps by de-layering or by removing or rationalizing one or more areas of an activity.




Knight and Willmott , introducing organisational behaviour, 2012 Chapter 7, organisation, structure and design.